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Daily Dietary Reference Intakes** During Pregnancy
 
Nutrient Units Age 18 years and younger Age 19 to 50 years Some Natural Sources
Water liters 3 3 Tap or bottled water, juices, carbonated beverages, tea , milk, soup, iceberg lettuce, cucumber, papaya, watermelon
Carbohydrate grams 175 175 Canned condensed milk, pie crust, barley, white rice, tapioca, couscous, dates, raisins, cornmeal, wheat flour, bulgur, chocolate
Protein  grams 71 71 Duck, chicken ,fish, turkey, lamb, beef, soybeans, ricotta and cottage cheese, pork
Total Fiber  grams 28 28 Barley, bulgur, beans, peas, lentils, wheat fiber, oat bran, artichokes, dates, chickpeas
Linoleic Acid  grams 13 13 Safflower oil, sunflower seeds, corn oil, soybean oil, pine nuts, pecans, sesame oil, chicken fat
Alpha-
Linolenic Acid
grams 1.4 1.4 Flaxseed oil, walnuts, canola oil soybean oil, fatty fish
Vitamin A mcg RAE*
 (IU as preformed vitamin A)
750
(2,500)

UL= 2,800
(9,240)
 
770
(2565)
UL= 3,000
(10,000)
 
Turkey and chicken giblets, carrots, pumpkin, sweet potato, spinach, collards, kale, cantaloupe, turnip greens, beet greens, winter squash
Vitamin E  mg 15
UL= 800
15
UL= 1,000
Ready-to-eat cereals, tomato, sunflower seeds, nuts, spinach, safflower oil, turnip greens
Vitamin K mcg 75
UL= ND
90
UL= ND
Kale, collards, spinach, turnip greens, beet greens, dandelion greens, mustard greens, Brussels sprouts, broccoli
Vitamin C mg 80
UL= 1,800
85
UL
= 2,000
Oranges, grapefruit, sweet red peppers, papaya ,cranberries ,strawberries, broccoli, Brussels sprouts
Vitamin B1
(thiamine)
 mg 1.4
UL= ND
1.4
UL= ND
Ready-to-eat cereals, enriched white rice, wheat flour, oat bran, pork loin, enriched cornmeal
Vitamin B2
(riboflavin)
mg 1.4
UL= ND
1.4
UL= ND
Turkey giblets, milk, ready-to-eat cereals ,duck, yogurt, soybeans, spinach
Niacin mg 18
UL= 30
18
UL= 35
Chicken, fish, duck, wheat flour, barley, ready to eat cereals, tomatoes , turkey, enriched white rice , buckwheat flour, yellow cornmeal, pork loin, ham ,bulgur, beef, couscous, lamb, peanuts
Vitamin B6
(pyridoxine)
mg 1.9
UL = 80
1.9
UL= 100
Ready-to-eat Cereals ,Chickpeas, fish , beef, turkey, enriched white rice, potatoes, chestnuts, buckwheat flour, chicken breast and giblets, pork loin, prune juice , duck ,bananas,  plantains
Folate
 
mcg 600
UL = 800
600
UL = 1,000
Enriched white rice, ready-to-eat cereals, cornmeal, turkey giblets, wheat flour, lentils, cowpeas (black-eyed peas) , beans, chickpeas (garbanzo beans), okra, spinach, asparagus, beef
ACOG recommends that women who have had a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect (e.g. spina bifida or anencephaly) and are planning a pregnancy should receive 4.0 mg of folic acid supplementation per day for 1 month before conception through the first 3 months of pregnancy [8,9]
Vitamin B12
(cyanocobalamin)
mcg 2.6
UL= ND
2.6
UL= ND
Cooked clams, turkey giblets, cooked oysters, cooked crab, fish, ready-to-eat Cereals ,beef, lamb
Iron mg 27
UL = 45
27
UL = 45
Beef,  turkey, duck, cooked clams, chicken, soybeans, fortified cereals, lentils, spinach, lima beans, refried beans, chickpeas, tomatoes, and prune juice
Iodine mcg 220
UL = 900
220
UL = 1,100
Cheese, bread, milk, salt, cooked  seafood.
Vitamin D
(cholecalciferol)
mcg
 (IU)
5 (200)
UL= 50 (2000)
5 ( 200)
UL= 50 (2000)
Salmon, rockfish , tuna, milk with added vitamin D, ready-to-eat cereals, skin exposure to sunlight
Biotin mcg 30
UL= ND
30
UL= ND
Cooked egg , cheddar cheese, whole-wheat bread cooked salmon, pork, avocado
Choline mg 450
UL = 3,000
450
UL = 3,500
Egg, salmon, turkey, beef, pork lion, lamb, soybeans, baked beans, ham, chickpeas (garbanzo beans), kidney beans
Pantothenic Acid mg 6
UL= ND
6
UL= ND
Ready to eat cereals, beef, mushrooms, chicken, turkey, duck, canned condensed or evaporated milk, sunflower seeds, couscous, rice, bulgur, yogurt, corn , peas
Calcium mg 1,300
UL = 2500
1000
UL = 2500
Ready-to-eat cereals, milk, cheese, cornmeal, yogurt, wheat flour, collards, rhubarb, sardines, spinach, soybeans, turnip greens
Phosphorous mg 1,250
UL = 3,500
700
UL = 3,500
Cornmeal, canned condensed or evaporated milk, raw oat bran, fish, ricotta cheese, duck, barley, clam chowder, soybeans, bulgur
Magnesium mg 400
UL = 350 (from pharmacological agent)
360
UL = 350 (from pharmacological agent)
Buckwheat flour, bulgur, oat bran raw, semisweet chocolate, fish, wheat flour, spinach, barley, pumpkin seeds, cornmeal, soybeans, white beans
Copper mcg 1,000
UL = 8,000
1,000
UL= 10,000
Beef, cooked  oysters, cooked crab , mushrooms, chocolate, tomato products, nuts, mature soybeans, sunflower seeds, chili con carne, cooked clams
Zinc  mg 12
UL = 34
11
UL = 40
Cooked oyster, ready to eat cereals, baked beans, turkey, beef, cooked crab, chicken, duck, lamb, pork, kidney beans
Chromium  mcg 29
UL= ND
30
UL= ND
Broccoli, grape juice, orange juice, English muffin, waffle, potatoes, garlic, basil, beef,  turkey breast
Manganese mg 2
UL = 9
2
UL = 11
Raw oat bran, wheat, bulgur, pineapple, barley, nuts, ready to eat cereals, white rice, spaghetti, okra, brown rice, chickpeas, spinach, raspberries, lima beans
Molybdenum mcg 50
UL = 1,700
50
UL = 2,000
Beans , lentils, peas, nuts, cereals, peas spinach, broccoli
Selenium  mcg 60
UL = 400
60
UL = 400
Nuts, chicken or turkey giblets, fish, cooked oysters, turkey, duck, wheat flour, enriched white rice, oat bran, pork, ricotta cheese
Fluoride  mg 3
UL = 10
3
UL = 10
Fluoridated drinking water, cooked seafood, tea. 

**Recommended Dietary Allowances And Adequate Intakes
*RAE= retinol activity equivalents;  3.33 IU Vitamin A = 1 mcg RAE  ; 6.66 IU beta carotene from supplement = 1mcg RAE; UL = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects. ND = Not determinable

SEE ALSO Dietary Reference Intakes During Lactation

Suggested Reading
-FDA: Dietary Supplements
-MyPyramid for Pregnancy & Breastfeeding

REFERENCES:
1. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001)  Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) Institute of Medicine (IOM)2001
http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10026
2. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=5776
3. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic
Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=6015
4. National Academy of Sciences
http://www.iom.edu/Global/News%20Announcements/~/media/Files/
Activity%20Files/Nutrition/DRIs/DRISummaryListing2.ashx
5. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002)
6. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2009. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl
7. Oregon State University Linus Pauling Institute Micronutrient Information Center
http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/
8.Cheschier N; ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics.ACOG practice bulletin. Neural tube defects. Number 44, July 2003. (Replaces committee opinion number 252, March 2001).Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2003 Oct;83(1):123-33. Recommendations for the Use of Folic Acid to Reduce the Number of Cases of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects MMWR September 11, 1992 / 41(RR-14);001. PMID:14626221
9.Centers for Disease Control (CDC).Use of folic acid for prevention of spina bifida and other neural tube defects--1983-1991. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1991 Aug 2;40(30):513-6. PMID:2072886

 

Kcal/kg per day
Normal BMI 40-45, Underweight 42 -50 , overweight 30 - 35 , obese?

MvI with iron one 1st trimester, then 2 for second andthord
Calcium mg 1500 1st, 2500 second and third
Vitamin D 1,000 IU
Magnesium 400 mg 1st, thne 800 mg 2nd and third,
folic acid 1 mg throughout
vitamin C/E 500 - 1000/400

10. Goodnight W, et al. Optimal nutrition for improved twin pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Nov;114(5):1121-34. PMID: 20168116

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