Reference Values During Pregnancy

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24 hour protein excretion, total , quantitative,  (urine 24 hour collection)

   Units Nonpregnant Adult First Trimester Second Trimester Third Trimester
mg / 24 hr < 150 - 0 -  255 0 - 254
g / 24 hr  < 0.15 - 0 - 0.26 0 - 0.25

Some causes of increased protein in the urine include functional proteinuria due to increased renal blood flow (exercise, fever, high-output heart failure), orthostatic proteinuria, primary glomerular disorders (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease, IgA nephropathy), secondary glomerular disorders (diabetic nephropathy, preeclampsia, postinfectious glomerulonephritis, HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, lupus nephritis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, sickle cell disease, Alport’s syndrome ), Fanconi syndrome, heavy metal ingestion, acute tubular necrosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, lymphoma, monoclonal gammopathy, multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndromes, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, ischemic renal disease/renal artery, and interstitial nephritis.

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2. Higby K, et al. Normal values of urinary albumin and total protein excretion during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Oct;171(4):984-9. PMID:7943114
3. Mujais SK, et al. Marked proteinuria in hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Am J Nephrol. 1985;5(3):190-5. PMID: 3160240
4. Simerville JA,Urinalysis: a comprehensive review. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Mar 15;71(6):1153-62.  Am Fam Physician. 2006 Oct 1;74(7):1096.  PMID:15791892

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