Bowing of the long bones
Campylobacteriosis is disease caused by gram negative spiral-shaped bacteria.
Most human illness is caused by Campylobacter jejuni, but human illness can also
be caused by other species. Campylobacteriosis is characterized by diarrhea,
cramping, abdominal pain, and fever within two to five days after exposure to raw or undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, or water
contaminated with the organism. Infection with Campylobacter jejuni
appears to increase the risk for developing Guillian-Barré syndrome and reactive
2. Allos BM. Association between Campylobacter infection and Guillain-Barré
syndrome. J Infect Dis 1997;176:S125-8.
Swelling and accumulation of fluid (edema) in the scalp of infants born
vaginally. The swelling usually disappears within 24 to 48 hours.
A collection of blood caused by rupture of blood vessels between the skull and the periosteum
(the membrane surrounding a bone). The blood does not cross the joints of the
skull, because it is trapped between the periosteum and bone. Subtle skull
fractures may underlie a cephalhematoma. The condition generally resolves over several weeks.
The ratio of the bi-parietal diameter (BPD) to the occipito-frontal diameter
(OFD) X 100. The normal range is 70 to 86. A cephalic index of less than
considered dolichocephaly. An index of greater than 86 is considered to be
Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD)
The infant's head is too large to pass through the mother's pelvis. Cephalopelvic disproportion is usually diagnosed
when labor fails to progress (cervical dilation and effacement have stopped) and
is unresponsive to oxytocin
Certified nurse midwife (CNM)
A registered nurse with at least 1-2 years of nursing experience who has received additional training in delivering babies and
providing prenatal and postpartum care to women. They are certified by the
American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM).
A history of passive and painless dilation (opening) of the cervix in the second trimester leading to preterm delivery.
The cervix appears to be "short", with a length of less than 2 cm, on
Lower narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina..
Cesarean section (C-section)
An incision made through the abdomen and uterus for the purpose of delivering
one or more fetuses. The incision on the abdomen may be vertical or transverse.
The incision made on the uterus may not be in the same direction as the
abdominal incision. The three most common types of uterine incisions are:
transverse (Kerr) See illustration
most common incision. This incision is easy to repair and is associated with
the lowest probability of rupture or dehiscence in a subsequent pregnancy
vertical (Kronig) See illustration
when lower uterine segment is undeveloped or for premature breech
Classical See illustration
- This incision may be used when a back down transverse lie
that cannot be converted to breech or cephalic presentation, inability to
expose the lower uterine segment, premature breech presentation, and
anterior placenta previa.
Bluish discoloration of the vaginal tissue and cervix caused by
accumulation of blood (venous congestion). Chadwick's sign may be seen as
early as six weeks of pregnancy.
A positive pregnancy test ( elevated hCG level in the blood or urine) before
pregnancy can be verified by ultrasound. Often used to refer to a pregnancy that
has failed before reaching a size large enough to be seen on sonogram.
Chloasma (mask of pregnancy, melasma)
Blotchy areas of darkened skin over the the forehead, cheeks and upper lips associated with pregnancy or with the use of contraceptives.
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun or tanning salons intensifies the
pigment changes. The areas of darkened skin usually fade several months
after delivery or discontinuation of the contraceptive.
Inflammation of the fetal membranes and amniotic fluid usually associated
with a bacterial infection. The bacteria responsible are usually those that are
normally present in the vagina. The presence of fever, uterine tenderness, and
foul vaginal discharge help to confirm the clinical diagnosis of chorioamniotis.
The outermost of the two fetal membranes that gives rise to the placenta.
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
Removal of cells that line the placenta, the chorionic villi, through the cervix
using a catheter or through the abdomen using a needle. The material obtained
may be tested for Down syndrome and other disorders. The procedure is
usually performed between the 10th and 12th weeks of pregnancy .
Structures in the ventricles (spaces) of the
brain that produce the cerebrospinal fluid. Each plexus is made up of a network
of capillary blood vessels covered by transporting epithelial cells.
Choroid plexus cyst
of fluid in the choroid plexus believed to
be caused by abnormal folding of the epithelium lining of the choroid plexus
which traps fluid and debris .
Structures made of of tightly coiled DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) found in the
nucleus of a cell. DNA is a chemical substance that carries
the instructions for making living organisms and determines characteristics such as
hair and eye color. Human beings normally
have 23 pairs of chromosomes in every cell.
insertion proximally from the edge of the placenta
creates a folded and thickened
placental margin that appears as a
associated with the placental edge
during ultrasound examination.
Circumvallate placenta has been associated
with premature labor, stillbirth, hemorrhage and placental abruption.
The accuracy of sonographic diagnosis for revealing circumvallation
appears to be limited
Suzuki S.Clinical significance of pregnancies with circumvallate placenta.J
Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2008 Feb;34(1):51-4.
Harris RD, et al. Accuracy of prenatal sonography for detecting circumvallate
placenta. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997 Jun;168(6):1603-8.
Cleft lip and palate (orofacial cleft)
A gap of the lip or lip and palate (roof of the mouth) caused by failure of
the lip or the lip and palate to grow together.
The lip and primary palate
close during the 4th to 7th weeks of gestation.
The secondary palate begins to close the 6th week and is completed
between the 9th and 12th weeks of gestation
Cleft lips are unilateral
or bilateral. See
1. Moore KL. The branchial
apparatus and the head and neck. In: Moore KL, editor. Before we are born: basic
embryology and birth defects. 3rd edition. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1989. p.
2. Sandler TW. Langmans’s Medical Embryology, 7th ed.Baltimore: William and
Deviation or deflection of the fingers. The term most often refers to curving of the little finger toward the fourth finger (the ring finger). Clinodactyly can be inherited as a normal variant, or be associated with chromosomal abnormalities like Down syndrome.
Club foot (Talipes equinovarus)
The foot is turned inward. Both feet are affected in 50% of cases. The defect
may be corrected surgically.
Club foot occurs in about 1
in 700 to 800 births.
In a small number of cases, clubfoot may be seen in
association with spina bifida or as part of a skeletal dysplasia. The estimated
risk of recurrence in future children is 3 to 8% if 1 child is affected and 10%
if 1 child and 1 parent are affected.
Thin, yellow, milky fluid
secreted by the breasts in the last weeks of pregnancy and the first few days after
delivery. Colostrum contains high levels of maternal antibodies.
Enlargement of the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles in the brain.
Time elapsed since the day of conception.
To be related through a recent common ancestor
( a close blood relative ).
( also known as percutaneous umbilical blood sampling)
Insertion of a needle through the mother's abdomen and into the umbilical
cord. The procedure is performed to obtain fetal blood for testing. The risk of
miscarriage from the procedure is reported to be 1 to 2%.
Corpus luteum (CL)
yellow colored structure that the develops from cells of the empty egg
follicle after the egg is released.
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone which prepares the lining of the
uterus for implantation by the embryo.
Premature closing of joints or sutures in the skull. Craniosynostosis may
occur as an isolated finding or may be associated with a syndrome
such as Apert, Chotzen, Pfeiffer, Carpenter, and Crouzon syndromes
The appearance of the infant's scalp at the vaginal opening during labor.
A condition characterized by thick mucus build
up in the lungs and digestive tract. The mucus in the lungs causes inflammation
and infections leading to the formation of scar tissue (fibrosis) and cysts in
the lungs. Cystic fibrosis (CF) also affects the pancreas, liver, intestines, sinuses, and sex
channel that transports chloride ions into and out of cells, and is involved in
the production of sweat, mucus, digestive enzymes, and tears.
There are more than 1,000 mutations of the CFTR
CF is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance
and is passed
through the genes from parents to children in autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance
The CFTR gene provides instructions for making
Single or multiple sac-like structures caused by abnormal development of the lymphatic system. Cystic hygromas occur
most often about the neck. More than half of fetuses with cystic hygromas diagnosed
in utero have Turner syndrome (one x chromosome).
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus transmitted by
direct person-to-person contact through saliva, breast
milk, or urine.
CMV is a member of the herpesvirus group, which also
includes herpes simplex virus,
Epstein-Barr virus , and
varicella-zoster virus. Persons infected with the virus may experience a mononucleosis-like syndrome with prolonged fever, extreme fatigue, body aches, and
sometimes a mild hepatitis.
Once infected with CMV the virus may remain inactive within the body for many
years. Recurrent disease occasionally occurs.
Transmission to the fetus occurs in 30-40% of cases of
primary maternal infections, and 0.5-1% of recurrent infections.
Findings on ultrasound that would raise the possibility of a severe CMV
infection include very high or very low levels of
amniotic fluid , fluid collections in the abdomen (ascites), dense
appearing (echogenic) bowel, growth restriction, very small head
of the fluid filled chambers of the brain ventriculomegaly or
hydrocephaly), or calcium deposits in the brain or liver.
Infants of mother who
experience recurrent infection with CMV during pregnancy tend to be only mildly
affected by the virus if at all.