A protein in the blood that promotes clotting of the blood
by accelerating the activation of prothrombin to thrombin.
Activated factor V is inactivated by activated protein C.
Factor V Leiden Mutation (activated protein C resistance)
A genetic mutation in the factor V gene that makes the activated factor V
protein resistant to inactivation by protein C. The increased activity of factor V in the blood
leads to a higher risk of forming a blood clot (thrombophilia) . The factor V Leiden mutation has a prevalence of 5–9% in the general
Factor V Leiden mutation in the mother has been associated with an
increased the risk of early first trimester recurrent pregnancy loss and
Failed induction of labor
Failure to generate regular (e.g.,every 3 min) contractions and cervical
change after at least 24 hours of oxytocin administration, with artificial
membrane rupture if feasible. Failed induction of labor is more likely if the
cervix is unfavorable (Bishop score of less than 6)
1. Spong CY, et. al. Preventing the first cesarean delivery: summary of a joint
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development,
Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and American College of Obstetricians and
Gynecologists Workshop. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Nov;120(5):1181-93. doi
2. Vrouenraets FP, et. al. Bishop score and risk of cesarean delivery after
induction of labor in nulliparous women.
Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Apr;105(4):690-7.PMID:
The distance from end to end of the thigh bone (the longest bone
in the body). The distance is measured by sonogram along the femur shaft (diaphysis) and should NOT include the DFE
(distal femoral epiphysis) a secondary bone forming center.
To obtain the appropriate plane for measurement of the FL align the ultrasound beam perpendicular the bone.
|DFE = Distal femoral epiphysis
A protein found inside cells that
stores iron in a nontoxic bioavailable form.
Fetal fibronectin (fFN)
Fetal fibronectin (fFN) is a glycoprotein that acts like "glue" holding the
fetal sac to the uterine lining during pregnancy. It can normally be found in
the cervicovaginal secretions of women up to 22 weeks of gestation. However,
the presence of fetal fibronectin in cervicovaginal secretions between 24 and 34
completed weeks of gestation is reported to be associated with preterm delivery.
Pregnant women between 24 weeks, 0 days and 34 weeks, 6 days gestation with
signs and symptoms of early preterm labor, intact amniotic membranes and minimal
cervical dilation (<3cm) may be tested for the presence of fetal fibronectin by
swabbing secretions from the posterior fornix (the vaginal area under the
cervix) . The test is reported as positive or negative.
The probability that a pregnant woman will deliver prematurely after a
positive test is only 40 to 60 percent. However, if the test is negative there
is a 99.5
percent chance the pregnant woman will NOT deliver within seven days and a 92 percent
chance that she will NOT deliver before 37 weeks. The test is, therefore, much
more valuable for predicting who is unlikely to deliver.
A human conceptus from 70 days' gestational age until delivery
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs)
A group of conditions that can occur in a person whose
mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.
The capacity for sustained survival outside the uterus as determined by the judgment of the responsible
The Textbook of Neonatal Resuscitation,
4th edition, advocates that no resuscitation of newborns less than 23
weeks’ gestational age and/or 400 g birth weight is appropriate .
Newborns with malformations incompatible with life such as renal
agenesis, anencephaly, trisomy 13 , or trisomy 18 are not considered
viable regardless of the gestational age.
1. American Academy of Pediatrics. Special considerations. In: Braner D,
Kattwinkel J, Denson S, Zaichkin J, eds. Textbook of Neonatal Resuscitation.
4th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: 2000:7–19
Fetal Warfarin Syndrome
A group of birth defects associated with exposure of the developing fetus to warfarin (Coumadin®) an oral anticoagulant used to prevent blood clots. The
defects include nasal hypoplasia, stippled epiphyses, limb deformities, mental
retardation, and seizures. Hall et al. (1980) placed the critical period for warfarin effects on the fetus as 6 to 9 weeks following conception.
Hall JG , et al. Maternal and fetal sequelae of anticoagulation during
pregnancy.Am J Med. 1980 ;68:122-40.
Fetal hear rate
Fifth Disease. See
Fibroid (leiomyoma, myoma)
A non-cancerous (benign) growth of fibrous tissue and muscle fibers.
Fibroids are often found in the uterus, and occur in about 30% of women over the age of 30.
A group of birth defects associated with
high-dose exposure of the developing fetus to fluconazole. The defects include
abnormal development of the face, cleft palate, craniosynostosis, radiohumeral
synostosis, femoral and tibial bowing , thin , decreased bone ossification. and
congenital heart disease , in particular tetralogy of Fallot. These effects are
similar to those observed in animal studies. To date there has been no reported
increased risk of congenital malformations in the offspring of women who used
single dose fluconazole before conception or during pregnancy.
1. Pursley TJ, et al., Fluconazole-induced congenital
anomalies in three infants.
Clin Infect Dis. 1996 Feb;22(2):336-40. PMID: 8838193
Aleck KA, Bartley DL.Multiple malformation syndrome following fluconazole use in
pregnancy: report of an additional patient.
Am J Med Genet. 1997 Oct 31;72(3):253-6. PMID: 9332650
2. Mølgaard-Nielsen D, et. al., Oral fluconazole during pregnancy and risk of
N Engl J Med. 2013 Nov 21;369(21):2061-2. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1312226. PMID:
3. Sorensen HT, et al., Risk of malformations and other outcomes in children
exposed to fluconazole in utero.
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Aug;48(2):234-8. PMID: 10417502
4. Nørgaard M, et. al., Maternal use of fluconazole and risk of congenital
malformations: a Danish population-based cohort study.J Antimicrob Chemother.
2008 Jul;62(1):172-6. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkn157. Epub 2008 Apr 9.
Follicle stimulating hormone
A hormone (a chemical) produced by the pituitary gland in the brain that stimulates the growth of eggs in the ovaries and the production of sperm in
An elevated FSH suggests partial or complete ovarian failure.
Fontanel ("soft spot")
A membranous gap between the bones of the developing skull.
The newborn normally has six fontanels the anterior, posterior, two mastoid,
and two sphenoid fontanels. The most prominent fontanel is the diamond-shaped
anterior fontanel which is closed in 96 percent of infants by 24 months of age.
Fragile X Syndrome (Martin-Bell
A disorder affecting males and females characterized by mental retardation.
Males , large ears and
jaws, macroorchidism in males (see illustration). In the U.S. fragile X syndrome affects approximately
1 in 4000 males and 1 in 8000 females and is a common cause of autistic-like behaviors.
Fragile X syndrome is caused by an expansion mutation that prevents the normal
expression of the the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene located on the X chromosome.
Near the beginning of the (FMR1) gene there is normally a series of repeating nucleotide DNA bases Cytosine, Guanine, Guanine (CGG). Usually there are about 30 repeats of CGG. However some individuals have from 55 to 200 CGG repeats (the pre-mutation) which have a predilection to expand further as the gene is passed from one generation to the
next through the mother. The pre-mutation does not usually expand in size when
passed from father to daughter. Persons with the full mutation have more than 200 of the CGG repeats and show symptoms of fragile X syndrome.
A positive family history in a proband with developmental delay should prompt
consideration of genetic testing of the FMR1 gene. The American College of
Medical Genetics recommends testing for all males and females with
mental retardation of unknown etiology
Fraternal twins (dizygotic twins)
Two offspring created when two
separate eggs are fertilized by separate sperm during the same menstrual cycle.
The two products of conception develop as
two separate embryos, and each embryo develops its own membranes and placenta.
The distance from the top of the pubic bone to the top of the pregnant uterus
(fundus) in centimeters. The measurement is used to approximate fetal age and
The measurement in centimeters gives an estimate of the gestational age in
weeks from 16 to 38 weeks (+/- 3 centimeters). The measurement may
not coincide with the gestational age if there is a growth disturbance , large fibroids, or abnormalities of the amniotic fluid.
The uppermost part of the uterus.