The folds of skin at the opening of the vagina consisting of
large outer folds called the labia majora and inner folds called the labia
Laceration ( Tear )
A cut or tear in tissues. Spontaneous lacerations of the perineum (the
area between the vagina and anus) may occur as a result of childbirth. Perineal
lacerations are classified by degree.
Third degree: The laceration involves the perineal skin and/or vaginal mucosa, and extends through the underlying
fascia and muscles.The laceration involves the anal sphincter.
Fourth degree: The laceration involves the perineal skin and/or vaginal mucosa, and extends through the underlying fascia , muscles, and anal sphincter . The laceration extends through the
- First-degree: The laceration is limited to the perineal skin
and/or vaginal mucosa.
- Second degree: The laceration involves the perineal skin and/or vaginal mucosa, and extends through the underlying fascia and
muscles. It does not involve the rectal sphincter.
The production and excretion of milk by the breast.
Lamaze (Lamaze method)
A method of childbirth preparation using behavioral techniques to
reduce pain and anxiety in labor developed by the obstetrician Ferdinand Lamaze
The fine hair that covers the fetus.
Large for gestational age (LGA)
A birth weight equal to or greater than the 90th percentile for a given
ACOG Practice Bulletin No.22: Fetal Macrosomia. American College of
Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Washington DC 2000
A gradual decrease
in the fetal heart rate with onset of deceleration to nadir >30
seconds. The nadir of the deceleration occurs after the peak of the
Late decelerations are believed to be caused by low oxygen blood levels in the
fetus which causes constriction of peripheral blood vessels in order to
divert blood to vital organs. Constriction of peripheral blood vessels
leads to hypertension which stimulates a baroreceptor mediated
vagal response resulting in a decreased heart rate.
Any decrease in uterine blood flow or
placental dysfunction can cause late decelerations.
LDRP (labor ,delivery ,recovery, and postpartum room)
A room designed to accommodate labor, delivery, and recovery. The rooms are
not usually equipped to handle cesarean section deliveries.
Narrowing of the frontal bones of the skull giving the fetal head the shape of
a lemon. Most commonly seen with Arnold-Chiair II
malformation and open spina bifida early in gestation.
The lemon sign is not specific for
open spina bifida and
may be seen in 1%
of normal fetuses.
4 specific steps in palpating the uterus through the abdomen in order to
determine the lie and presentation of the fetus.
The longitudinal axis of the fetus in relation to the mother's longitudinal axis
(i.e., longitudinal would be parallel to the mother).
An infection caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium
Listeria monocytogenes, L monocytogenes is a gram-positive, motile,
About one-third of listeriosis cases happen during pregnancy. Fetal infection
can occur via transplacental transmission. Infected pregnant women may experience only a mild, flu-like illness
with fever or stiff neck . Infections during pregnancy can lead to
miscarriage or stillbirth, premature delivery, or infection of the newborn.
The bacterium has been found in a variety of raw foods, such as uncooked
meats and vegetables, soft cheeses and and ice cream made with unpasteurized
cheese, deli meats, refrigerated pâtés or meat spreads.
L&D (L and D)
Labor and Delivery.
Lightening (dropping, engagement)
The descent of the presenting part of the fetus into the pelvis.
Last menstrual period. Refers to date of onset of
the last menstrual period.
|Left occiput anterior.
Describes the position of the fetal occiput as being to the left side of the
maternal birth canal (position) and anterior in relation to the mother's
The placental edge is less
than 2 centimeters (cm) from the internal os but not covering the internal os.
Patients with a low lying placenta appear to have an increased risk for
LifeART © 2006
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved.
Reddy UM, etr al. Fetal imaging: Executive Summary of a joint Eunice Kennedy
Shriver National institute of child health and human development, society for
maternal-fetal medicine, American institute of ultrasound in medicine, American
college of obstetricians and gynecologists, American college of radiology,
society for pediatric radiology, and society of radiologists in ultrasound fetal
imaging workshop. J Ultrasound Med. 2014 May;33(5):745-57. PMID:24764329
Dashe JS, eta al. Persistence of placenta previa according to gestational age at
ultrasound detection. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;99:692-7.