A physician who has completed specialty training in the care of
the delivery of babies, and in the treatment of diseases of the female
Abnormally low amount of amniotic fluid. Causes of
oligohydramnios may include ruptured membranes (water bag), urinary tract
abnormalities , fetal growth restriction, and postmaturity.
A hormone that stimulates the uterus to contract (uterotonic agent) , causes
milk let down, and appears to influence pair bonding. Oxytocin is made in the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular
nucleus of the hypothalamus in the brain and is released into the blood from the posterior
lobe of the pituitary gland during labor, nipple stimulation, and sex.
Synthetic oxytocin is used to begin or stimulate labor. The molecular structure
of oxytocin is very similar to that of vasopressin (antidiuretic
A fluid-filled cavity within or on the surface of one of the ovaries. A cyst
that is produced as a result of the normal release of an egg from an ovary
during the menstrual cycle is called a functional cyst .
The female reproductive
organs on each side of the uterus in the pelvis that make female hormones and
A birth defect of the midline abdominal wall
that allows the bowel and /or liver to protrude into the base of the
umbilical cord (a type of hernia). Omphalocele occurs in approximately
1 in 4,000 births , and is more accurately diagnosed after the process of
physiologic gut herniation has completed at around 11 1/2 weeks' gestation.
Omphalocele should be distinguished from gastroschisis, a hole in the abdominal
wall to the right side of the umbilical cord, that allows bowel to float within
amniotic fluid. Gastroschisis is not covered by a membrane.
Additional structural abnormalities are common with omphlocele. The risk of congenital syndromes is increased with omphalocele especially
when the omphalocele is small. Congenital syndromes that have been associated with omphalocele include trisomy 18, trisomy
13, triploidy, Turner syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome,Pentalolgy of cantrell, and OEIS complex.
The prognosis for omphalocele is generally good if the chromosomes are normal and there are no other