Mumps virus is a member of the paramyxovirus family of viruses. The acute viral disease is spread from person to person by coughing or sneezing.
The infection is most contagious from three days prior to and four days after the onset of symptoms.
The incubation period is usually 14 to 18 days, although it may vary from 7 to 23 days.
The incidence of mumps infection during pregnancy is between 0.8 and 10 cases per 10,000 pregnancies.
The illness typically presents with fever, myalgia, and swelling and tenderness of one or more of the salivary glands, usually the parotid gland. About one-third of infected people do not have symptoms.
In women mumps may cause aseptic meningitis, mastitis, thyroiditis, glomerulonephritis, myocarditis, pancreatitis, and arthritis .
Mumps infection during the first trimester of pregnancy has been associated with an increased rate of spontaneous abortion. Although mumps virus is capable of infecting the placenta and fetus, several studies have failed to demonstrate an association between gestational mumps and fetal malformation.[3,4].
There is, however, continued debate regarding a possible association between intrauterine mumps and endocardial fibroelastosis[5,6].
Congentially acquired mumps may sometimes lead to respiratory distress in the neonate[7-10]. Neonatal thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly has also been reported following perinatl infection.
Live attenuated mumps virus: Mumps vaccine virus has been been recovered from the placenta, but not from the fetal tissues of pregnant women who were vaccinated before undergoing elective abortions.
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J Pediatr. 96:912-4, 1980
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Arch Dis Child. 61:80-1, 1986
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Acta Paediatr Scand. 79:1252-4, 1990
10. Takahashi Y, Teranishi A, Yamada Y, Yoshida Y, Hashimoto K, Sakamoto Y, Morikawa H, Giddings J, Yoshioka A A case of congenital mumps infection complicated with persistent pulmonary hypertension.
Am J Perinatol. 15:409-12.1998
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Eur J Pediatr. 152:739-41. 1993
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N Engl J Med. 290:710-2, 1974
Last update: 1/2/2003