Exposure to Chemicals During Pregnancy

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Other Sources:  

Inorganic Arsenic
     Teratology 2001 (PDF file) 


Carbon Monoxide

  • Carbon Monoxide and Pregnancy
        Organization of Teratology Information Specialists
  • Carbon Monoxide and Pregnancy
        1995 Illinois Teratogen Information Service



  • Insecticides
        Carbamate, cypermethrin, diazinon, DEET, Dursban, FICAM, malathion, methoprene, 
        1992 Illinois Teratogen Information Service


    TERATOGENIC: Lead crosses the human placenta (1). Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery [2,3]. There is also evidence that prenatal lead exposure leads to impaired mental development. [4,5,6]

    BREAST FEEDING: The levels of lead in breast milk are similar to those in plasma [7]. Mothers with high serum lead levels should avoid breast feeding.

    1. Olmeda RE et al. Lead poisoning in late pregnancy due to maternal pica. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1999;37:626
    2. Wibberely DG, Lead levels in human placentae from normal and malformed births. J Med Genet 1977;14:339
    3. Baghurst PA, et al. Lead in The placenta, membranes, and umbilical cord in relation to pregnancy outcome in a lead-smelter community. Environ Health Perspect 1991;90:315
    4. Baghurst PA , et al. Environmental exposure to lead and children's intelligence at the age of seven years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1279
    5.Sehn XM et al.Low-level prenatal lead exposure and neurobehavioral development of children in the first year of life: a prospective study in Shanghai.Environ Res 1998 Oct;79(1):1-8
    6.Dietrich KN Low-level fetal lead exposure effect on neurobehavioral development in early infancy.Pediatrics 1987;80:721
    7. Gulson BL et al. Relationships of lead in breast milk to lead in blood, urine, and diet of the infant and mother. Environ Health Perspect 1998;106:667


  • Lead Exposure in Pregnancy
        Organization of Teratology Information Specialists



  • Mercury
        Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) (PDF file) 
  • Mercury in Fish and Seafood
  • Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury
        2000 National Academies Press


    Organic Solvents

  • Organic Solvents and Pregnancy
        Benzene, toluene, xylene
        1995 Illinois Teratogen Information Service
  • Pregnancy Outcome Following Gestational Exposure to Organic Solvents
        1999 JAMA


  • Paint and Pregnancy
        1995 Illinois Teratogen Information Service

     Paternal Exposures
  • Paternal exposures - reproductive risks
         Teratology 1999
  • Paternal Exposures
         Organization of Teratology Information Specialists

    Polychlorinated biphenyls
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls
        Teratology 1997 (PDF file) 



  • Smoking and reproductive outcomes
        Teratology 1997 (PDF file) 

  • Tobacco Use  and Pregnancy
        Centers for Disease Control


    TERATOGENIC: Toluene "sniffing" has been associated with a pattern of malformations similar to the fetal alcohol syndrome [1].



  • Toluene
        Teratology 1997 (PDF file) 


    1. Shepard TH. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents. 9th ed.Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998

  • Workplace Hazards to Reproduction and Development
    The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences


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