Infections During Pregnancy

Home > Infections During Pregnancy
  • Bacterial Vaginosis
  • Brucellosis
  • Chagas
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Enterovirus
  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • Hantavirus
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Herpes
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Human papilloma virus
  • Influenza
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Listeria
  • Lyme Disease
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
  • Malaria
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Parasites, intestinal tract
  • Parvovirus
  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  • Rubella
  • Syphilis
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Varicella (Chickenpox)
  • West nile Virus

         Other Sources:

    Bacterial Vaginosis



  • Chagas infection


    Cytomegalovirus infection


    Enterovirus infection

    Epstein-Barr virus infections



    Hantavirus infection

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    Human Papillomavirus
       Cad Saude Publica. 2005 Jul-Aug;21(4):1006-15. Epub 2005 Jul 11.




    Lyme Disease

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)

    A member of the Arenaviridiae family of viruses, LCMV is a single-strand RNA virus carried by mice. When the infection occurs during pregnancy, the virus can cause damage the fetal brain and retina.




    Neisseria meningitidis infection

     Parasites, Intestinal tract


    Parvovirus (also called erythrema infectiosum or "fifth disease")

    The illness presents with cold-like symptoms including  malaise, polyarthralgia (particularly of the peripheral joints), and coryza. There may also be a fever. The symptoms are followed by an intensely  red rash on the cheeks with circumoral pallor. The rash may extend to the trunk and extremities in a lacelike pattern.  Once the rash has developed  the viremia has abated and the patient is no longer infectious.

    The virus is found in respiratory tract secretions and is likely spread by sneezing and contact with infected objects. Incubation is 4 to 14 days. Parvovirus may cause fetal anemia (and sometimes cardiomyopathy) leading to nonimmune hydrops (NIH)  [1,2] . The highest risk to the nonimmune (IgG and IgM absent) woman occurs after exposure to a child living within the same household. An exposed pregnant mother may be tested for anti-parvovirus IgM which indicates a recent infection. Anti-parvovirus B19 IgM production begins after the 3rd day of rash in patients with a new infection [3] REFERENCES: 1. Gratecos E,et al. J Infect Dis 1995;171:1360-1363. 2. Rodis JF et al, Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179:985-8  3. James H. Harger et al Obste Gynecol 1998:91:413-420


    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever


    Syphilis infection


    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects most species of warm blooded animals and can cause the disease toxoplasmosis. Members of the family Felidae (domestic cats and their relatives) are the only known definitive hosts in which Toxoplasma gondii may complete its life cycle. Cats become infected after ingesting  infected raw meat or oocysts. Recently infected cats shed large numbers of T. gondii oocysts in their feces. After 1 to 5 days the oocysts sporulate and become infective.

    Other animals including rodents, birds, sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle, as well as humans may become intermediate hosts after ingesting material or water contaminated with the infective oocysts. The oocysts transform into tachyzoites shortly after ingestion, and  localize in neural and muscle tissue where  they develop into tissue cyst bradyzoites. Tissue cysts remain in the intermediate host for life and are infectious to other animals if the cyst-containing tissue is eaten.

    As shown in Figure 1 to the left, transmission to humans may occur by several routes:
    • Accidental ingestion of oocysts by exposure to soil or water that has been contaminated with a cat's feces that contain Toxoplasma
    • Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat that contains infective tissue cysts.
    • Congenital infection from transplacental transmission
    Figure1.Click to enlarge image

    The incubation period is 5 to 23 days after ingesting the infective cysts. Most pregnant women who acquire the infection have no symptoms. Some may experience malaise, low grade fever, and lymphadenopathy. In particular adenopathy of  the deep cervical nodes. In some patients symptoms may mimic infectious mononucleosis. Symptoms usually resolve without treatment within weeks to months. Severe symptoms, including myositis, myocarditis, pneumonitis and  paralysis may occur but are rare.

    Prenatally acquired T gondii may infect the brain and retina of the fetus  and can cause chorioretinitis, intracranial calcifications, and hydrocephalus. The frequency of vertical transmission increases with the gestational age as shown in Figure 2.  In contrast, severe clinical signs in the infected infant are more commonly observed in offspring of women whose infection was acquired early in gestation[1]
    Gestational Age at Maternal Seroconversion vs Risk of Toxoplasma gondii Congenital infection and Development of Clinical Signs in Offspring.

    Click to enlarge image

    1. Montoya JG, Remington JS. Management of Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. Clin Infect Dis 2008 Aug 15;47(4):554-66.  PMID: 18624630






              Diagnosis and Management of Varicella Infection in Pregnancy


    West Nile Virus


    Home | About | Disclaimer | Privacy | Contact

    Copyright © 2010 by Focus Information Technology. All rights reserved.