1999 Center for the Evaluation of Risks to
Human Reproduction (CERHR)
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
Inadvertent exposure to lithotripsy in 6 pregnant women during first trimester resulted in no increase in major or minor
anomalies, or rates of miscarriage. However, the number of exposures is insufficient to confirm the safety and long-term effects of routine ultrasound-guided ESWL during pregnancy.
1.Asgari MA et al. ,Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of renal calculi during early pregnancy. BJU Int. 1999 Oct;84(6):615-7.
Last update: 1/2/2003
Anencephaly has been associated with exposure to increased core temperature (infection,sauna) during pregnancy.
Hyperthermia and Pregnancy
1997 Illinois Teratogen Information Service
Hyperthermia and Pregnancy(PDF file)
1997 Organization of Teratology Information Services
Gestational effects of maternal hyperthermia due to febrile illnesses and
resultant patterns of defects in humans
Ionizing Radiation (X-rays)
Surgery and Pregnancy
2000 Illinois Teratogen Information Service
Visual display units (VDUs)
Visual display units (VDUs)and Pregnancy Outcomes
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission, Australia