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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)

An enzyme that helps to protect red blood cells from being destroyed (hemolytic anemia) when a person is exposed to certain foods, drugs, or the stress of infection. G6PD deficiency is the most common inherited human enzyme disorder, and is especially common in African-American males, and persons of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and Asian origin. The most severe cases of G6PD deficiency appear to occur in Asian and Mediterranean populations

The condition is transmitted by mutations in the G6PD gene located on the X chromosome and follows an X-linked recessive inheritance (sex-linked) pattern

The normal random inactivation of one of the two X chromosomes that occurs in females can lead to a partial deficiency in female carriers which may not be detected using screening tests. Carrier detection using prenatal DNA analysis to detect specific mutations may be more suitable in patients with high risk for severe enzyme deficiency. Sequencing of the G6PD gene is available from Emory Genetics Laboratory



An opening beside the umbilical cord that allows bowel to protrude outside of the abdomen. Gastroschisis  is thought to arise from disruption of blood flow  to the affected abdominal wall.

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A section of the molecule DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) which codes for a particular protein and carries the hereditary information for such characteristics as hair color, eye color, and susceptibility to disease.

Genetic counseling

Evaluation of prospective parents' risks of having a child born with a birth defect or genetic disorder, and advise on
their options for testing and treatment.

Gestational age

Time elapsed since the first day of the last menstrual period. If pregnancy was achieved using assisted reproductive technology, gestational age is calculated by adding 2 weeks to the conceptional  age.


Gestational diabetes (GDM)

Carbohydrate intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.

A fasting plasma glucose level >126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) or a casual plasma glucose >200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) meets the threshold for the diagnosis of diabetes, if confirmed on a subsequent day, and precludes the need for any glucose challenge. In the absence of this degree of hyperglycemia patients may be evaluated using a 1 hour 50 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as screening test, or proceed directly to a diagnostic 3 hour 100 gram OGTT .

Gestational diabetes increases the risk of maternal hypertensive disorders, cesarean delivery, fetal macrosomia, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, polycythemia, and hypocalcemia. In addition, fasting hyperglycemia may be associated with an increase in the risk of intrauterine fetal death during the last 48 weeks of gestation .

Goodell's sign

Softening of the cervix seen as early as probable sign of pregnancy. Goodell's sign may be observed as early as six weeks of pregnancy.



A pregnant woman.


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